16 July 2014

Transistor



The invention: 

A miniature electronic device, comprising a tiny
semiconductor and multiple electrical contacts, used in circuits
as an amplifier, detector, or switch, that revolutionized electronics
in the mid-twentieth century.

The people behind the invention:

William B. Shockley (1910-1989), an American physicist who led
the Bell Laboratories team that produced the first transistors
Akio Morita (1921-1999), a Japanese physicist and engineer who
was the cofounder of the Sony electronics company
Masaru Ibuka (1908-1997), a Japanese electrical engineer and
businessman who cofounded Sony with Morita




The Birth of Sony

In 1952, a Japanese engineer visiting the United States learned
that the Western Electric company was granting licenses to use its
transistor technology. He was aware of the development of this device
and thought that it might have some commercial applications.
Masaru Ibuka told his business partner in Japan about the opportunity,
and they decided to raise the $25,000 required to obtain a license.
The following year, his partner, Akio Morita, traveled to New
York City and concluded negotiations with Western Electric. This
was a turning point in the history of the Sony company and in the
electronics industry, for transistor technology was to open profitable
new fields in home entertainment.
The origins of the Sony corporation were in the ruins of postwar
Japan. The Tokyo Telecommunications Company was incorporated
in 1946 and manufactured a wide range of electrical equipment
based on the existing vacuum tube technology. Morita and Ibuka
were involved in research and development of this technology during
the war and intended to put it to use in the peacetime economy.
In the United States and Europe, electrical engineers who had done
the same sort of research founded companies to build advanced
audio products such as high-performance amplifiers, but Morita
and Ibuka did not have the resources to make such sophisticated
products and concentrated on simple items such as electric water
heaters and small electric motors for record players.
In addition to their experience as electrical engineers, both men
were avid music lovers, as a result of their exposure to Americanbuilt
phonographs and gramophones exported to Japan in the early
twentieth century. They decided to combine their twin interests by
devising innovative audio products and looked to the new field of
magnetic recording as a likely area for exploitation. They had learned
about tape recorders from technical journals and had seen them in
use by the American occupation force.
They developed a reel-to-reel tape recorder and introduced it in
1950. It was a large machine with vacuum tube amplifiers, so heavy
that they transported it by truck. Although it worked well, they had
a hard job selling it. Ibuka went to the United States in 1952 partly
on a fact-finding mission and partly to get some ideas about marketing
the tape recorder to schools and businesses. It was not seen as a
consumer product.
Ibuka and Morita had read about the invention of the transistor
inWestern Electric’s laboratories shortly after the war. John Bardeen
andWalter H. Brattain had discovered that a semiconducting material
could be used to amplify or control electric current. Their point
contact transistor of 1948 was a crude laboratory apparatus that
served as the basis for further research. The project was taken over
byWilliam B. Shockley, who had suggested the theory of the transistor
effect. A new generation of transistors was devised; they were
simpler and more efficient than the original. The junction transistors
were the first to go into production.


Ongoing Research

Bell Laboratories had begun transistor research becauseWestern
Electric, one of its parent companies along with American Telephone
and Telegraph, was interested in electronic amplification.
This was seen as a means to increase the strength of telephone signals
traveling over long distances, a job carried out by vacuum
tubes. The junction transistor was developed as an amplifier.Western
Electric thought that the hearing aid was the only consumer
product that could be based on it and saw the transistor solely as a
telecommunications technology. The Japanese purchased the license
with only the slightest understanding of the workings of
semiconductors and despite the belief that transistors could not be
used at the high frequencies associated with radio.
The first task of Ibuka and Morita was to develop a highfrequency
transistor. Once this was accomplished, in 1954, a method
had to be found to manufacture it cheaply. Transistors were made
from crystals, which had to be grown and doped with impurities to
form different layers of conductivity. This was not an exact science,
and Sony engineers found that the failure rate for high-frequency
transistors was very high. This increased costs and put the entire
project into doubt, because the adoption of transistors was based on
simplicity, reliability, and low cost.
The introduction of the first Sony transistor radio, the TR-55, in
1955 was the result of basic research combined with extensive industrial
engineering. Morita admitted that its sound was poor, but
because it was the only transistor radio in Japan, it sold well. These
were not cheap products, nor were they particularly compact. The
selling point was that they consumed much less battery power than
the old portable radios.
The TR-55 carried the brand name Sony, a relative of the Soni
magnetic tape made by the company and a name influenced by the
founders’ interest in sound. Morita and Ibuka had already decided
that the future of their company would be in international trade and
wanted its name to be recognized all over the world. In 1957, they
changed the company’s name from Tokyo Telecomunications Engineering
to Sony.
The first product intended for the export market was a small
transistor radio. Ibuka was disappointed at the large size of the TR-
55 because one of the advantages of the transistor over the vacuum
tube was supposed to be smaller size. He saw a miniature radio as a
promising consumer product and gave his engineers the task of designing
one small enough to fit into his shirt pocket.
All elements of the radio had to be reduced in size: amplifier,
transformer, capacitor, and loudspeaker. Like many other Japanese
manufacturers, Sony bought many of the component parts of its
products from small manufacturers, all of which had to be cajoled
into decreasing the size of their parts. Morita and Ibuka stated that
the hardest task in developing this new product was negotiating
with the subcontractors. Finally, the Type 63 pocket transistor radio
the “Transistor Six”—was introduced in 1957.


Impact

When the transistor radio was introduced, the market for radios
was considered to be saturated. People had rushed to buy them
when they were introduced in the 1920’s, and by the time of the
Great Depression, the majority of American households had one.
Improvements had been made to the receiver and more attractive
radio/phonograph console sets had been introduced, but these developments
did not add many new customers. The most manufacturers
could hope for was the replacement market with a few sales
as children moved out of their parents’ homes and established new
households.
The pocket radio created a new market. It could be taken anywhere
and used at any time. Its portability was its major asset, and it
became an indispensable part of youth-oriented popular culture of
the 1950’s and 1960’s. It provided an outlet for the crowded airwaves
of commercialAMradio and was the means to bring the new
music of rock and roll to a mass audience.
As soon as Sony introduced the Transistor Six, it began to redesign
it to reduce manufacturing cost. Subsequent transistor radios
were smaller and cheaper. Sony sold them by the millions, and millions
more were made by other companies under brand names such
as “Somy” and “Sonny.” By 1960, more than twelve million transistor
radios had been sold.
The transistor radio was the product that established Sony as an
international audio concern. Morita had resisted the temptation to
make radios for other companies to sell under their names. Exports
of Sony radios increased name recognition and established a bridgehead
in the United States, the biggest market for electronic consumer
products. Morita planned to follow the radio with other transistorized
products.
The television had challenged radio’s position as the mechanical
entertainer in the home. Like the radio, it stood in nearly every
American living room and used the same vacuum tube amplification
unit. The transistorized portable television set did for images
what the transistor radio did for sound. Sony was the first to develop
an all-transistor television, in 1959. At a time when the trend
in television receivers was toward larger screens, Sony produced
extremely small models with eight-inch screens. Ignoring the marketing
experts who said that Americans would never buy such a
product, Sony introduced these models into the United States in
1960 and found that there was a huge demand for them.
As in radio, the number of television stations on the air and
broadcasts for the viewer to choose from grew.Apersonal television
or radio gave the audience more choices. Instead of one machine in
the family room, there were now several around the house. The
transistorization of mechanical entertainers allowed each family
member to choose his or her own entertainment. Sony learned several
important lessons from the success of the transistor radio and
television. The first was that small size and low price could create
new markets for electronic consumer products. The second was that
constant innovation and cost reduction were essential to keep ahead
of the numerous companies that produced cheaper copies of original
Sony products.
In 1962, Sony introduced a tiny television receiver with a fiveinch
screen. In the 1970’s and 1980’s, it produced even smaller models,
until it had a TV set that could sit in the palm of the hand—the
Video Walkman. Sony’s scientists had developed an entirely new
television screen that worked on a new principle and gave better
color resolution; the company was again able to blend the fruits of
basic scientific research with innovative industrial engineering.
The transistorized amplifier unit used in radio and television sets
was applied to other products, including amplifiers for record players
and tape recorders. Japanese manufacturers were slow to take
part in the boom in high-fidelity audio equipment that began in the
United States in the 1950’s. The leading manufacturers of highquality
audio components were small American companies based
on the talents of one engineer, such as Avery Fisher or Henry Koss.
They sold expensive amplifiers and loudspeakers to audiophiles.
The transistor reduced the size, complexity, and price of these components.
The Japanese took the lead devising complete audio units based on transistorized
integrated circuits, thus developing the basic home stereo.
In the 1960’s, companies such as Sony and Matsushita dominated
the market for inexpensive home stereos. These were the basic
radio/phonograph combination, with two detached speakers.
The finely crafted wooden consoles that had been the standard for
the home phonograph were replaced by small plastic boxes. The
Japanese were also quick to exploit the opportunities of the tape cassette.
The Philips compact cassette was enthusiastically adopted by
Japanese manufacturers and incorporated into portable tape recorders.
This was another product with its ancestry in the transistor
radio. As more of them were sold, the price dropped, encouraging
more consumers to buy. The cassette player became as commonplace
in American society in the 1970’s as the transistor radio had
been in the 1960’s.


The Walkman

The transistor took another step in miniaturization in the Sony
Walkman, a personal stereo sound system consisting of a cassette
player and headphones. It was based on the same principles as the
transistor radio and television. Sony again confounded marketing
experts by creating a new market for a personal electronic entertainer.
In the ten years following the introduction of theWalkman in
1979, Sony sold fifty million units worldwide, half of those in the
United States. Millions of imitation products were sold by other
companies.
Sony’s acquisition of the Western Electric transistor technology
was a turning point in the fortunes of that company and of Japanese
manufacturers in general. Less than ten years after suffering defeat
in a disastrous war, Japanese industry served notice that it had lost
none of its engineering capabilities and innovative skills. The production
of the transistor radio was a testament to the excellence of
Japanese research and development. Subsequent products proved
that the Japanese had an uncanny sense of the potential market for
consumer products based on transistor technology. The ability to incorporate
solid-state electronics into innovative home entertainment
products allowed Japanese manufacturers to dominate the
world market for electronic consumer products and to eliminate
most of their American competitors.
The little transistor radio was the vanguard of an invasion of new
products unparalleled in economic history. Japanese companies
such as Sony and Panasonic later established themselves at the leading
edge of digital technology, the basis of a new generation of entertainment
products. Instead of Japanese engineers scraping together
the money to buy a license for an American technology, the
great American companies went to Japan to license compact disc
and other digital technologies.

William Shockley

William Shockley’s reputation contains extremes. He helped
invent one of the basic devices supporting modern technological
society, the transistor. He also tried to revive one of the most
infamous social theories, eugenics.
His parents, mining engineer William Hillman Shockley,
and surveyor May Bradford Shockley, were on assignment in
England in 1910 when he was born. The family returned to
Northern California when the younger William was three, and
they schooled him at home until he was eight. He acquired an
early interest in physics from a neighbor who taught at Stanford
University. Shockley pursed that interest at the California Institute
of Technology and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
which awarded him a doctorate in 1936.
Shockley went to work for Bell Telephone Laboratories in
the same year. While trying to design a vacuum tube that could
amplify current, it occurred to him that solid state components
might work better than the fragile tubes. He experimented with
the semiconductors germanium and silicon, but the materials
available were too impure for his purpose. World War II interrupted
the experiments, and he worked instead to improve radar
and anti-submarine devices for the military. Back at Bell
Labs in 1945, Shockley teamed with theorist John Bardeen and
experimentalistWalter Brattain. Two years later they succeeded
in making the first amplifier out of semiconductor materials
and called it a transistor (short for transfer resistor). Its effect on
the electronics industry was revolutionary, and the three shared

the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement.
In the mid-1950’s Shockley left Bell Labs to start Shockley
Transistor, then switched to academia in 1963, becoming Stanford
University’s Alexander M. Poniatoff Professor of Engineering
and Applied Science. He grew interested in the relation
between race and intellectual ability. Teaching himself psychology
and genetics, he conceived the theory that Caucasians were
inherently more intelligent than other races because of their genetic
make-up. When he lectured on his brand of eugenics, he
was denounced by the public as a racist and by scientists for

shoddy thinking. Shockley retired in 1975 and died in 1989.



See also : 

Cassette recording; Color television; FM radio; Radio;Television;

Further Reading :

Lyons, Nick. The Sony Vision. New York: Crown Publishers, 1976.
Marshall, David V. Akio Morita and Sony. Watford: Exley, 1995.
Morita, Akio, with Edwin M. Reingold, and Mitsuko Shimomura.
Made in Japan: Akio Morita and Sony. London: HarperCollins,
1994.
Reid, T. R. The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and
Launched a Revolution. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984.
Riordan, Michael. Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the
Birth of the Information Age. New York: Norton, 1998.
Scott, Otto. The Creative Ordeal: The Story of Raytheon. New York:
Atheneum, 1974.

11 comments:

Anonymous said...

Bonjour autorisation est dit dans ses prophéties antérieures, y compris la croissance plus forte des revenus au deuxième trimestre et terminé rubrique de la classe des [url=http://www.ifoundbliss.com/pas-cher-radarlock-pas-oakley.html]oakley radarlock[/url]
en année pleine et révélations sauvés affecté familier. Foothill Hacienda oakley france modeste lit de camion répétée déterminer les gains de 33 pence donner par rapport au deuxième trimestre, 22% de la même année routine après. Unis au nom de toutes les ventes de la route pendant le séjour de l'année connecté de 98 $ avec une hausse de 34% en 2000. Il ya effectivement des boucles d'oreilles décideurs qui est laissé de style ses concepts Yurman. Ceci peut être trop grande, comme authentique, même sur une petite fraction de [url=http://www.ifoundbliss.com/pas-cher-oakley-hijinx.html]Pas cher Oakley HIJINX}[/url]
. Considérez note, si vous voulez un "faux, mais vous devez avoir déplacé avec eux au lieu de concepts Yurman faits importants par rapport aux reproductions à faire.Audi S8 a un grand avantage sur les autres types de haut portable. Le système a une largeur de, par exemple en aluminium. Pilote solitaire est un état d'esprit treillis peut être trouvé en nous le platine blanc mais 8 doubles Huit clubs restent ainsi fournis.
Mesurez vos chansons préférées est la procédure pour une période solde oakley prolongée de votre famille Piercing à un certain nombre overal peu exagéré. Taux Littlest, est presque certainement 20 D'autre part, 0,8 millimètres, qui porte toujours le canal de l'oreille, de sorte que vous la variable 1/32 de la taille, et le plus grand et le plus exigeant est de 25 mm, cela est également vrai pour certains des [url=http://www.ifoundbliss.com/pas-cher-oakley-sport.html]oakley sport[/url]
plus importants canal de l'oreille rabat peut vous sentir rassasié. Depuis l'expansion de mesure est aussi appelé, est grave, et les questions peuvent ne substained si ce n'est pas fait correctement. Dans la [url=http://www.ifoundbliss.com/pas-cher-oakley-flak-jacket.html]oakley flak jacket pas cher[/url]
plupart des choses liées à un SE, les voyageurs sont très écrous. Femmes dans le droit d'enseigner à vos enfants vaccinés pour obtenir une maladie sexuellement transmissible qui est la raison pour laquelle si vous vous retenez votre enfant repose rapports sexuels satisfaisants, knowning un nouveau vaccin qui s'arrête à des [url=http://www.ifoundbliss.com/oakley-pas-cher-de-split-jacket.html]Oakley pas cher de Split Jacket[/url]
rapports sexuels. Bien que certainement encore avoir certains de ces fous avec le meilleur état d'esprit, mais les politiciens garder la bague du pivot de DM.

Guo Guo said...

yao20150318
lacoste shirts
kate spade outlet
beats headphones
gucci outlet
instyler
louis vuitton
hollister pas cher
hollister canada
cheap snapbacks
louboutin shoes
iphone 6 case
ray ban sunglasses
longchamp handbags
ray ban
ralph lauren polo shirts
lululemon
herve leger dresses
michael kors outlet
louis vuitton outlet
oakley sunglasses
tods outlet
abercrombie and fitch
kate spade outlet
tiffany jewelry
michael kors uk
toms shoes
coach outlet
ray ban sunglasses online
adidas outlet
tods shoes
swarovski jewelry
cheap jordans
louboutin shoes
mcm bags

ninest123 Ninest said...

ninest123 12.11
nike outlet, oakley sunglasses wholesale, gucci handbags, michael kors outlet online, ray ban sunglasses, uggs outlet, louis vuitton, michael kors outlet online, nike air max, polo outlet, longchamp outlet, uggs on sale, jordan shoes, uggs outlet, nike air max, oakley sunglasses, polo ralph lauren outlet online, christian louboutin uk, ugg boots, ray ban sunglasses, cheap oakley sunglasses, louis vuitton, tiffany and co, oakley sunglasses, tory burch outlet, louis vuitton outlet, louis vuitton outlet, christian louboutin outlet, michael kors outlet online, replica watches, prada outlet, burberry outlet, christian louboutin, longchamp outlet, ugg boots, michael kors outlet online, prada handbags, burberry handbags, longchamp outlet, nike free, michael kors outlet, ray ban sunglasses, louis vuitton outlet, tiffany jewelry, oakley sunglasses, replica watches, christian louboutin shoes, michael kors outlet

ninest123 Ninest said...

timberland pas cher, nike blazer pas cher, jordan pas cher, sac vanessa bruno, ray ban pas cher, coach purses, lululemon canada, true religion outlet, polo lacoste, ralph lauren uk, michael kors, michael kors outlet, true religion jeans, nike roshe, nike air max uk, polo ralph lauren, sac longchamp pas cher, michael kors pas cher, converse pas cher, nike huaraches, hogan outlet, nike trainers uk, north face uk, north face, vans pas cher, longchamp pas cher, sac hermes, burberry pas cher, nike free uk, hollister pas cher, nike free run, true religion outlet, replica handbags, true religion outlet, nike air force, mulberry uk, abercrombie and fitch uk, air max, nike air max, nike roshe run uk, guess pas cher, oakley pas cher, nike air max uk, new balance, coach outlet store online, hollister uk, ray ban uk, michael kors, nike tn, louboutin pas cher

ninest123 Ninest said...

converse, chi flat iron, reebok outlet, nike air max, vans, celine handbags, ghd hair, soccer shoes, jimmy choo outlet, mac cosmetics, babyliss, mcm handbags, nike roshe run, instyler, ralph lauren, gucci, north face outlet, ipad cases, bottega veneta, abercrombie and fitch, herve leger, wedding dresses, hollister clothing, iphone 6s plus cases, louboutin, vans outlet, giuseppe zanotti outlet, beats by dre, asics running shoes, ray ban, iphone 6 cases, nfl jerseys, insanity workout, lululemon, iphone 6 plus cases, new balance shoes, mont blanc pens, timberland boots, oakley, p90x workout, ferragamo shoes, soccer jerseys, iphone 6s cases, valentino shoes, s6 case, nike air max, baseball bats, north face outlet, iphone 5s cases, hollister, iphone cases, hermes belt

ninest123 Ninest said...

wedding dresses, canada goose outlet, supra shoes, pandora jewelry, pandora uk, moncler uk, canada goose uk, louis vuitton, ugg uk, moncler outlet, juicy couture outlet, ugg pas cher, ugg, moncler, converse outlet, louis vuitton, lancel, doudoune moncler, moncler, canada goose, pandora charms, juicy couture outlet, moncler, canada goose jackets, replica watches, barbour, toms shoes, louis vuitton, ugg,ugg australia,ugg italia, swarovski crystal, canada goose outlet, canada goose, barbour uk, marc jacobs, canada goose outlet, thomas sabo, links of london, ugg,uggs,uggs canada, pandora jewelry, canada goose, moncler, karen millen uk, hollister, moncler outlet, montre pas cher, coach outlet, louis vuitton, louis vuitton, swarovski, doke gabbana
ninest123 12.11

louis vuitton outlet said...

Michael Kors Outlet Ralph Lauren Outlet Gucci Factory Outlet Gucci Outlet Gucci Handbags Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses North Face Jackets Prada Outlet Burberry Outlet Hollister Clothing Ferragamo Shoes Tiffany Jewelry Tiffany Outlet NFL Jerseys Cheap Jordans Oakley Outlet North Face Outlet Burberry Outlet Ray Ban Sunglasses
Chan Luu Sale Toms Outlet Burberry Outlet Oakley Sunglasses Toms Shoes Sale Beats By Dr Dre Coach Outlet Christian Louboutin Shoes Oakley Sunglasses Valentino Shoes
Oakley Eyeglasses Michael Kors Outlet Coach Factory Outlet Coach Outlet Online Coach Purses Kate Spade Outlet Toms Shoes North Face Outlet Coach Outlet Gucci Belt

chenlina said...

chenlina20160402
nike sb dunks
coach outlet store online
louis vuitton outlet
coach factory outlet
air max 90
ray bans
air jordans
jordan retro 4
celine handbags
louis vuitton handbags
michael kors outlet
ralph lauren outlet
gucci outlet
oakley sunglasses wholesale
coach outlet
cheap toms
true religion jeans
hollister kids
toms outlet
louis vuitton handbags
louis vuitton handbags
louis vuitton
canada goose outlet
michael kors outlet
coach outlet
louboutin femme
michael kors outlet
cheap air jordans
ray ban sunglasses outlet
michael kors outlet
adidas originals shoes
coach outlet
coach outlet
ralph lauren
kate spade handbags
adidas superstar
gucci outlet
ray ban sunglasses outlet
louis vuitton
ugg outlet
as

Cran Jane said...

Burberry Belt Tory Burch Boots Louis Vuitton Belt Ferragamo Belt Marc Jacobs Handbags Lululemon Outlet Christian Louboutin Shoes True Religion Outlet Tommy Hilfiger Outlet
Michael Kors Outlet Coach Outlet Red Bottoms Kevin Durant Shoes New Balance Outlet Adidas Outlet Coach Outlet Online Stephen Curry Jersey Vans Outlet Ralph Lauren Outlet
Ugg Boots Sale UGGS For Women Skechers Go Walk Adidas Yeezy Boost Adidas Yeezy Adidas NMD Coach Outlet North Face Outlet Ralph Lauren Outlet Puma Outlet Polo Outlet
Under Armour Outlet Under Armour Hoodies Herve Leger MCM Belt Nike Air Max Louboutin Heels Jordan Retro 11 Converse Outlet Nike Roshe Run UGGS Outlet North Face Outlet

obat aborsi said...

This blog is so nice to me. I will continue to come here again and again. Visit my link as well. Good luck
cara menggugurkan kandungan

chansara said...

The post is written in very a good manner and it contains many useful information for me. Electric Broom Reviews