10 August 2009

Iron lung

The invention: Amechanical respirator that saved the lives of victims of poliomyelitis. The people behind the invention: Philip Drinker (1894-1972), an engineer who made many contributions to medicine Louis Shaw (1886-1940), a respiratory physiologist who assisted Drinker Charles F. McKhann III (1898-1988), a pediatrician and founding member of the American Board of Pediatrics A Terrifying Disease Poliomyelitis (polio, or infantile paralysis) is an infectious viral disease that damages the central nervous system, causing paralysis in many cases. Its effect results from the destruction of neurons (nerve cells) in the spinal cord. In many cases, the disease produces crippled limbs and the wasting away of muscles. In others, polio results in the fatal paralysis of the respiratory muscles. It is fortunate that use of the Salk and Sabin vaccines beginning in the 1950’s has virtually eradicated the disease. In the 1920’s, poliomyelitis was a terrifying disease. Paralysis of the respiratory muscles caused rapid death by suffocation, often within only a few hours after the first signs of respiratory distress had appeared. In 1929, Philip Drinker and Louis Shaw, both of Harvard University, reported the development of a mechanical respirator that would keep those afflicted with the disease alive for indefinite periods of time. This device, soon nicknamed the “iron lung,” helped thousands of people who suffered from respiratory paralysis as a result of poliomyelitis or other diseases. Development of the iron lung arose after Drinker, then an assistant professor in Harvard’s Department of Industrial Hygiene, was appointed to a Rockefeller Institute commission formed to improve methods for resuscitating victims of electric shock. The best-known use of the iron lung—treatment of poliomyelitis—was a result of numerous epidemics of the disease that occurred from 1898 until the 1920’s, each leaving thousands of Americans paralyzed. The concept of the iron lung reportedly arose from Drinker’s observation of physiological experiments carried out by Shaw and Drinker’s brother, Cecil. The experiments involved the placement of a cat inside an airtight box—a body plethysmograph—with the cat’s head protruding from an airtight collar. Shaw and Cecil Drinker then measured the volume changes in the plethysmograph to identify normal breathing patterns. Philip Drinker then placed cats paralyzed by curare inside plethysmographies and showed that they could be kept breathing artificially by use of air from a hypodermic syringe connected to the device. Next, they proceeded to build a human-sized plethysmographlike machine, with a five-hundred-dollar grant from the New York Consolidated Gas Company. This was done by a tinsmith and the Harvard Medical School machine shop. Breath for Paralyzed Lungs The first machine was tested on Drinker and Shaw, and after several modifications were made, a workable iron lung was made available for clinical use. This machine consisted of a metal cylinder large enough to hold a human being. One end of the cylinder, which contained a rubber collar, slid out on casters along with a stretcher on which the patient was placed. Once the patient was in position and the collar was fitted around the patient’s neck, the stretcher was pushed back into the cylinder and the iron lung was made airtight. The iron lung then “breathed” for the patient by using an electric blower to remove and replace air alternatively inside the machine. In the human chest, inhalation occurs when the diaphragm contracts and powerful muscles (which are paralyzed in poliomyelitis sufferers) expand the rib cage. This lowers the air pressure in the lungs and allows inhalation to occur. In exhalation, the diaphragm and chest muscles relax, and air is expelled as the chest cavity returns to its normal size. In cases of respiratory paralysis treated with an iron lung, the air coming into or leaving the iron lung alternately compressed the patient’s chest, producing artificial exhalation, and the allowed it to expand to so that the chest could fill with air. In this way, iron lungs “breathed” for the patients using them.Careful examination of each patient was required to allow technicians to adjust the rate of operation of the machine. Acooling system and ports for drainage lines, intravenous lines, and the other apparatus needed to maintain a wide variety of patients were included in the machine. The first person treated in an iron lung was an eight-year-old girl afflicted with respiratory paralysis resulting from poliomyelitis. The iron lung kept her alive for five days. Unfortunately, she died from heart failure as a result of pneumonia. The next iron lung patient, a Harvard University student, was confined to the machine for several weeks and later recovered enough to resume a normal life.


Anonymous said...

Heya i am for the primary time here. I found this board
and I to find It truly helpful & it helped me out a lot.
I am hoping to offer one thing back and aid others such as you helped me.

Also visit my website ... projektowanie stron internetowych poznań

Anonymous said...

beats pro by dr dre
Hi, just wanted to tell you, I loved this article. It was helpful.
Keep on posting!

Guo Guo said...

lacoste shirts
kate spade outlet
beats headphones
gucci outlet
louis vuitton
hollister pas cher
hollister canada
cheap snapbacks
louboutin shoes
iphone 6 case
ray ban sunglasses
longchamp handbags
ray ban
ralph lauren polo shirts
herve leger dresses
michael kors outlet
louis vuitton outlet
oakley sunglasses
tods outlet
abercrombie and fitch
kate spade outlet
tiffany jewelry
michael kors uk
toms shoes
coach outlet
ray ban sunglasses online
adidas outlet
tods shoes
swarovski jewelry
cheap jordans
louboutin shoes
mcm bags

12 Zhengjx said...

valentino bags
pandora jewelry
calvin klein dresses
burberry outlet
michael kors outlet
burberry sale
louis vuitton borse
lululemon athletica
coach outlet online
lululemon outlet store
burberry outlet online
kate spade handbags
ghd hair dryer
white converse
fitflop uk
hollister uk
ralph lauren
prada handbags
michael kors handbags
coach factory outlet
oakley sunglasses
adidas superstars
polo ralph lauren outlet
coach outlet online
rolex submariner
supra store
coach outlet store
ray ban sunglasses outlet
converse sale
cheap oakley sunglasses
mizuno running shoes
coach outlet
adidas trainers
coach factory outlet online
coach outlet online
oakley sunglasses
coach outlet store online

林磊 said...

2016-5-12 leilei
coach outlet online
michael kors outlet
chaussure louboutin
lululemon outlet
toms outlet
coach outlet
cheap nike shoes
louboutin outlet
yeezy boost 350 black
versace sunglasses
sac longchamp pliage
cheap air max
micahel kors
michael kors bags
fitflops outlet
lacoste polo shirts
puma shoes
cheap jordans
fitflops sale
michael kors outlet clearance
adidas supercolor
adidas nmd
polo ralph lauren outlet
cheap ray-ban sunglasses
ray ban outlet
longchamp outlet
coach purses on sale
jordan shoes
cheap oakley sunglasses
nike tn pas cher
burberry handbags
louboutin pas cher
coach outlet
michael kors bags
nike cortez red
cheap oakley sunglasses
polo ralph lauren
ralph lauren outlet
air max

chenmeinv0 said...

ugg boots clearance
christian louboutin shoes
ugg boots
moncler jackets
louis vuitton outlet
canada goose sale
ugg canada
moncler coats
nike outlet
adidas originals zx flux

Meiqing Xu said...

adidas yeezy boost
red bottoms shoes
mulberry handbags
tory burch outlet store
polo ralph lauren outlet
marc jacobs bags
adidas nmd
dallas cowboys jerseys
louis vuitton outlet
adidas uk

chenmeinv0 said...

mbt shoes
nike air max
longchamp outlet
salvatore ferragamo outlet
adidas stan smith shoes
cheap oakley sunglasses
zlatan ibrahimovic jersey
fred perry polo
levis jeans
north face jackets

Blogger said...

Are you tired of looking for bitcoin faucets?
Triple your claimed satoshis with this amazing BTC FAUCET ROTATOR.